04 February 2006

Research Studies in Information Technology Sector

Developed By Dr.A.Sreekumar Menon

Karnataka, especially Bangalore has become a favourit destination for IT and IT -enabled companies BPOs and Call Centers. The state has attracted FDI investments from all over the world. The current trend in the development of IT and IT-related industries is poised to witness unprecedented growth in the coming years, because of vast pool of trained manpower and people who have good command over English language. In spite of these advantages if the industry were to survive, take roots and grow, it is necessary to acquire data and information pertaining to several expects of IT industry and applying it in managing Human Resources technical processes and environmental relations such as the relation with the Government. IT industry in Karnataka is of very recent origin and hence no attempt has been made to conduct systematic and large scale studies on problems pertaining to this industry. Hence it is perhaps the need of the hour to address the problems, plan scientific studies and generate valid and usable data and information.

In this context, I would like to propos the following studies, all of which fall in field of Applied Behavior Sciences in Human Resources Management, Organizational Studies and Macro Sectoral Studies. Given below are the topics for Research Studies and proposals in summarized version. Those IT Companies interested to sponsor the studies can contact the above author for working out detailed proposal and subsequent arrangements for sponsorship.

  1. A study of Diffusion of the so called “Best Practices of M.N.C’s (Foreign Subsidiaries) and Domestic Firms in India – Bangalore Area Study.
  2. A Study of Changing Market Scenario in Urban Setting in Bangalore.
  3. Study of Job Turnover (job attrition) among IT workers in Bangalore and effective strategies to retain them.
  4. Study of Organizatio¬nal climate and Management Practices for creating work environment conducive for creativity, innovativeness, productivity, quality and customer-satisfaction in regard to products and services in software industry in Bangalore.
  5. Out-sourcing IT work to India. A study of economic, social and psychological impacts on IT workers and their families- A study of their adjustment problems and formulation of effective solutions.
  6. A study of IT industries-its corporate image-An area study in Bangalore.
  7. Designing Performance Assessment/Appraisal/Evaluation/Merit Rating/Performance Review system and technique of performance feedback focused on development of competence and work motivation and team spirit for employees in IT Industry in Bangalore.
  8. A study of Financial and Non-Financial Incentives provided to IT work force in Bangalore and their effectiveness interms of their satisfaction with their jobs, personal productivity and innovativeness.
  9. Case studies of high performing IT companies in Bangalore.
  10. An in-depth study of effectiveness of communication skills of IT staff working in Bangalore
  11. Study of Customer Preferences for Services offered by Foreign Subsidiaries of Financial Services Firms in Indian - A study in Bangalore.

    1. A Study of Diffusion of the so called ‘Best Practices – Technological, Production, Marketing, Financial, H.R.M and L.R / I.R of M.N.C’s Foreign Subsidiaries and Domestic Firms in India – Bangalore Area Study.

    Particularly after the integration of Indian Economy with Global economy in 1991 by Govt. of India, M.N.C’s interest in India as a preferred location for F.D.I investment has grown unprecedentedly. This increase in F.D.I is poised to grow further in the years ahead. India’s recent emergence as a leader in Soft ware industry has given added boost to this development. In Bangalore itself now around 5000 software companies big and small got established during a short span. Thus Outsourcing and Transnational collaboration are going to dominate the field of industry during 21st century and perhaps beyond.

    Debates on the effects of M.N.C’s In India often tends to be highly emotional and far from being considering it as unmixed blessing. On one hand it is claimed that M.N.C’s have contributed to socio-economic development of the country due to infusion of their superior knowledge and so called Best Practices – Technological, Institutional, Organizational (H.R.M and L.R/I.R) across their Subsidiaries and Domestic Firms emulating them. There is equally strong argument to show that M.N.C’s do more harm than good. M.N.C’s are seen as superior employers or as behemoths taking advantage of low wages and cheap labor supply, suppress the work force in Developing countries which allows M.N.C’s to bargain down home country employment standards and drive up their profit rates. A view contrary to this is expressed by some people who support M.N.C’s. They see M.N.C’s as more progressive employers than Domestic firms, who provide quality work floor and physical workplace arrangements, contractual agreements, Training Programmes and more attractive pay packets and liberal employee benefits and welfare programmes. Thus the opinions are equivocal. This main reason for this controversy is the non-availability of authentic information collected systematically through Research studies. There are very limited number of studies on the subject (see Kuruvilla, S; Frenkel, S and Peetz, D. in Cooke,W.N Multinational Companies and Global Human Resources Strategies 2003, p.166-193) What we find is that the views on the role of M.N.C’s are largely opinionated and impressionistic rather than factual. Hence there is need for more studies like this on the subject.

    There is also another need for doing this study. M.N.C.’s with their profit –orientation, which is justified, will look for transferring their best practices to their Foreign Subsidiaries. So it is in their interest to find out whether diffusion of their best practices has taken or is taking place. It is also possible to have some best practices which are locally evolved in the Traditional Indian Setting, which work best. , knowledge of which will be added advantage to M.N.C.’s Thus a study of this kind assumes added importance

    The Objectives

    1. To find out whether Diffusion of Best Practices of M.N.C’s has taken place across their Subsidiaries and also Domestic Firms has taken/is taking place.
    1. If so, what are those practices? (An In depth analysis and descriptive presentation of those Practices)
    2. What are the predominant conditions that have facilitated institutionalization of Best Practices?
    3. What are the conditions which are inhibiting transplantation of Practices and What are the strategies used to overcome resistance?
    5. Are there locally bred Best Practices? If so what are those, and their nature? and what are the conditions that nurture their growth and development?

    Research Methodology
    Both Survey Research and Case Study Methodologies are to be employed.

    In the first phase, a representative Sample of MNC’s Subsidiaries and Domestic Companies will be drawn and from each, certain number of Respondents from two hierarchical levels-managerial and worker will be selected to elicit response to the Questionnaire. A Licket type of Questionnaire will be prepared, using which data and information on the above parameters will be collected by mailing the Questionnaires. Secondary data in the form of Documents and statistics available in the Companies will be also being collected. The survey data will be analyzed quantitatively by using appropriate Statistical Techniques vis-a-vis computerization. The findings are expected to yield answers to the questions subsumed under objectives.

    In the second stage, two Firms one Foreign Subsidiary and the second one Domestic Firm, comparable on relevant parameters like size, product line etc will be identified .Qualitative or descriptive data and information regarding the variables included in the study will be collected by using a Semi-Structured Interview Schedule and conducting personal interviews with selected respondents in the two Firms. The secondary Data available in these Firms which will throw light on the research problems will also be collected. The two Firms will be compared on the study parameters using the qualitative information collected and Case Studies will be prepared.

    From the findings of the two phases of the study and analysis, we should be able to understand (1).whether M.N.C’s best practices are in use in their Foreign Subsidiaries, if so (2) what are those, (3) what conditions nurture them, (4) Are there best practices indigenously evolved, if so (5) what are those and (6) what conditions facilitated their functioning. The findings of the first phase of study using Quantitative Survey Research Methodology can be cross checked with those emerged in the second phase of study using Case Study Approach and Reliability and Validity of the findings can be established.

    I was associated with a some what similar research project on Institutionalization of Management Education in India (through I.I.M’S) Sponsored and conducted by MIT and Harvard Business School jointly with Shri. Ram Centre For Industrial Relations, New Delhi during 1970’s and I also published a paper identifying organizational conditions which contribute to diffusion of innovations by IIM Graduates in the Journal Indian Journal of Industrial Relations.

    2. A study of Changing Market Scenario in Urban setting, in Bangalore

    Companies develop products and services by anticipating standardized customer needs by In-house R&D and try to sell the products by creating demands through advertisements and using aggressive sales promotion techniques. The Customers have practically no choice except buying what ever is available. Evidences are there to attest this fact. For instance, once the products are sold, the buyers can not return the product or exchanged in most cases. The relationship between the Manufactures and Traders with the Customers ceases once the sale is affected. The customers hardly get informed about the products and services satisfactorily and the trend is to encourage impulsive purchase with the result, Consumers understanding of the relative standing of the products in terms of quality and features vis-à-vis price is very limited. So they generally do not know which products are better than which products. Though products carry warranty, the warranty classes are so stringent that hardly buyers get any benefit out of it. The availability and quality of After-Sale Service is also much to be desired. What these feature stand for is Firm-centric Approach to production and Distribution rather than Customer-centric Approach. This type of consumer market is also called as “sellers Market” as opposed to Buyers’ Market” in which it is said that ”Customer is the king”. If we consider marketing/selling as a continuum, we can call it as Conservative-Progressive ends of the continuum. What is described above follows conservative end. In a least developed economy, the Marketing and Sales trend might be conservative. With economic development; the market – orientation also undergoes change and modification. For example in a Developing economy, it might move from conservative end to Progressive end. Sensitivity to consumers needs may increase. Indian economy is in that stage for the last 4 decades. Since 1991 with the opening up of the economy to the world market, there was a shift to better customer-orientation, a shift towards the progressive end of the continuum. Market-orientation changes further with further Economic development. For instance in Developed Economies facing global challenges, the Market orientation undergoes substantial changes. It goes much beyond customer-orientation. An Incisive Research study done by Prof C.K.Prahlad and Prof Venkat Ramaswamy (reported in the book “Future of Competition”) have identified this phenomenon which they have called as “Co-creation of Values”, according which Manufacturers, customers, professionals and even the general public who have the necessary knowledge, skills and innovative sprit contribute to value addition. According to their prediction successful Firms will be Customer or Consumer-centric, in the sense that both the producers and the customers, who are the end users will work symbiotically for maximum value-creation and customization and new strategies will be adopted to meet these new challenges of developing unique Co-creation experience. Global participation in Co-creation of unique experiences also leads to unprecedented refinements and perfections that human being would ever try. Their breakthrough discovery and their theory of Co-creation issue a warning against formulation of very rigid Patent Systems. For instance in India, the issue of patenting is currently debated both in the Parliament and in the Mass Media. The ideas such as Patenting should not close doors for continuing improvements in the patented know-how by restricting its access to innovators and that it should cover only key ideas in Basic sciences and that it should not cover standard formulations, are being voiced.

    In the context of above discussions on possible changes in the Market-orientation in a globalized economy, it is interesting to find out at what stage is the Urban Market in Bangalore operates? Are consumers more aware of their rights now than before? Are the Indian companies particularly those which are Multinationals are enough consumer-oriented? How do Consumers perceive? In India legislation for protecting consumer interest has been in operation for the last few years. Consumer movements have also caught up momentum in recent years, apart from integration of Indian Economy with the Global economy. since 1991, almost 15 years since the opening up of the economy, this perhaps is sufficient time for the shift of market –orientation. So it is the right time now to launch such a study.

    If there is a shift from Firm-centric to Consumer centric, market orientation if not co-creation, we might expect the following changes:

    1. The manufacturers try to incorporate customer needs and preferences into the product. They conduct more consumer surveys to gather information and use as feed back more often than they were doing before.
    2. The sale attempts will be more Customer-friendly than before.
    3. Customers are more articulate now than before. We should come across more consumer complaints than seen before.
    4. Attending Customer Complaints regarding defects in the products and deficiency in services, those relating to After Sales Service more promptly and more satisfactorily than before.
    5. There should be less number of Consumer complaints filed against Consumer-centric firms by the Customers in the Consumer Courts compared to less Customer-friendly Companies.
    6. Foreign subsidiaries might adopt more Consumer-centric practices compared to Domestic companies.
    7. These Parameters should be positively correlated at statistically significant levels.

    Research Methodology

    A consumer survey is to be conducted. A small representative sample of consumers from Bangalore representing different Socio-economic levels is to be selected. The major Household Items which they bought during the last 3 years and the companies which manufactured those items are to be prepared, A Questionnaire to assess their Opinions, Attitudes and Experiences in regard to above parameters and in regard to their purchase of those Household Goods is to prepared. The sample Respondents are to be interviewed using the Questionnaire to collect their responses. Those responses are to be converted into numerical scale and subjected to Statistical Processes.

    Two Firms, one Foreign subsidiary and the other one Domestic, matched on a number of parameters like the Capital investment, product lines, Size, location etc are to be selected to compare those two firms to find out whether the Foreign subsidiary of MNC’s adopt more Customer-Centric practices, both technological and HRM/IR compared to Domestic Enterprises. As the two firms are matched on the above variables, the differences if we find in the introduction of Consumer-cetric practices can be attributed to the Management Philosophy of MNC’s.

    Results of the Study should help to verify the ercity of the statements/hypotheses mentioned above and should help us to know about the Market-orientaion.

    Based on the findings, it should also be possible to recommend best ways to make Sale presentation and to attend to after - sales complaints to the satisfaction of the customers.

    It is also possible to verify empirically in the Indian Context. The hypothesis that Customer-centric Firms are high performing ones compared to those who are Firm-centric and also to understand the practices, which we can call as “Next practices” in the Indian Industrial Milieu, which other Firms can adopt profitably.

    3. Study of Job turnover (Job Attrition) among the IT workers in Bangalore and Effective Strategies for retaining them.

    The questions that are asked are :

    What are the patters of job changes among knowledge workers? What are the personal, family and social profiles of those who shift jobs and those who stay in the job? How does employee turnover affect the companies? Do IT Companies adopt policies and practices which promote employee commitment? If so, what are those and how effective are they? Are they cost effective and operationally effective? Do companies which have policies for employee retention perform better than others who do not have any policy? What methods can be suggested drawn from the latest knowledge available in the filed of Applied Behavior Science that would fit in with the overall Business Policy of the Firms?

    4. Study of Organization Climate and Management Practices for creating work environment conducive for creativity, innovativeness, productivity, Quality and Customer-orientation.

    The question asked is what Leadership, Motivational and communication Techniques and other Personnel and Organizational Practices such as Team Building, Management by Committees, Developing a Matrix Structure of Organization Design, Job Enrichment, Employee Development using Performance Appraisal and Training and such other Morale and Motivation Boosters promote creativity? The interest is to find out the next best practices followed by those organizations which show edge over others which can be implanted in those low performing organizations to stay in an environment of turbulent change and fierce competition.

    In Bangalore, the boom of IT industry is a recent phenomenon. Hence IT Managements may not be having enough experience in the application of Modern Management techniques particularly in their field of Human Resources Management (H.R.M), the application of which is still to catch up even in other Industrial Sectors in India. So perhaps this is the right time to study the current status of institutionalization of Professional Management and promote its permeation into the system. Again as the IT industrial system is in its infancy, it is perhaps much easier to introduce changes, as the system resistance is expected to be less compared to old organizations, which have established their own value systems.

    5. Outsourcing IT Work to India – A Study of Economic, Social and Psychological Impacts on IT Workers and their families-A study of their adjustment problems.

    Outsourced IT work is a new and challenging experience to Indian employees who are relatively young. Though they possess excellent IT skills, they have to learn other capabilities such as collaborating with people having very different Socio – Cultural background, and speaking in different accents and have to work in the context of different time zones i.e. need to work in night shifts. It is not known whether these demands affects their personality and emotional adjustment, personal adjustment, and social and family adjustment which inurn affect their physical and mental health and in turn their productivity and quality of their life or whether they make satisfactory adjustments to the demands of their work and to demands of their personal, family and societal lives and if so it is interesting to know which can also be useful in helping others, what copping strategies they employ to balance the demands of the work and those of their Personal, Family and Social life. Considering the peculiar nature of their work, currently IT Companies provide them with certain incentives which are not available to other employees. The question is whether those incentives, which are not available to others, are sufficient to offset the ill effects of work and keep them in good emotional and physical health and sufficiently motivated to utilize their top IT skills.

    One of the early Research projects out of which a book was prepared by me was “Human Problems of Shift work”. It was an empirical study of the problems faced by people working in Night and Rotating shifts and how they coped up with them. This project was sponsored by Planning Commission, Govt. of Indian which also provided grant for its publication as a book. This book received Delhi Management Association/Escorts Award for being best and original empirical work. There was excellent comment on this book by Prof. Howard Baumgartel of Kansas University, U.S.A. The Research Frame work and Methodology used in that project can be adopted for the above study of IT people.

    6. A Study of IT Industries-Its Corporate Image

    IT Industry is of very recent origin in Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai and other parts of India. The pay packet and other perks offered are much higher in IT Industry compared to other sectors. How do employees in other sectors and Social and Political Leaders perceive this? What these socially and politically influential people – Influential General Public expect from IT Industry as its Social Responsibility? Do they expect their participation in the Socio-economic Development of the Local Area and if so what are their expectations? (Recently a strong view as come up that there should be reservation in IT jobs giving preference to local people) What are the considerations which Social and Political elites have concerning the new generation of IT Industry which influence their favorable attitudes and public support for the growth and development of IT industry? Public support is necessary for the long term growth and prosperity of IT Sector. So IT Industries should do all they can to develop and maintain favorable image of the General Public towards it. Currently some of the major IT Companies in Bangalore like Infosys, Wipro and others are participating in some social welfare programs. The question is as yet we don’t have reliable information regarding how the local community perceives, whether they have favorable view, whether they support State expenditure in IT, whether they see the current social and economic contributions made by IT Companies in Bangalore are adequate, in what other ways, would they want IT Sector to contribute to the society and so on without being detrimental to the efficiency of IT operations.

    7. Designing Performance Assessment/ Appraisal / Evaluation / Merit Rating / Performance Review System and Technique, Performance feedback focused on Development of competence and work Motivation.

    A good Appraisal System is necessary for meeting the twin objectives of performance control on the one hand and improving the Competencies and work Commitment of Employees and their Career development on the other. In IT industries which employ the so called knowledge workers, the need for this is all the more stronger. The system should be such that it should encourage the employees to seek continuous feed back from the task as well as from “Superiors, Peers and even from those who they supervise with a zest for perfection. A proper system of “Appraisal and its proper introduction are very potent tools in the hands of Management to get best out of their workforce.

    8. A study of Financial and Non-financial Incentives provided to IT Workforce in Bangalore and their Effectiveness in terms of their Morale, Motivation, Loyalty to company, Satisfaction with their Jobs, Personal Productivity, and Innovativeness or creative performance.

    IT Employers generally feel that retaining their employees is one of the problems they face. Young bright recruits look for change of their jobs no sooner they are adequately trained and the reason quoted is for better pay and other perquisites. So revision of pay from time to time is the easy strategy which Employers adopt, which probably is not the best strategy. It is adopted because, it is more visible and easy strategy and lack of awareness on the part of management of motivating potentials of Non-Financial Incentives, which are not as tangible as monetary incentives. It is known out of Behavioral Science Research that when the Non-financial Incentives are lacking in sufficient quantity, the employees not being aware of their absence, articulate their needs in terms of Financial Incentives, hence ask for more money and other perks. Thus the desire for better salary is a deficiency need and one will ask for more and more, so long as those underlying non-financial needs are not satisfied. Raising salaries and perks are not the real solutions for retaining employees. Monetary or Financial Incentives, on the other hand should have as close link with performance improvement, as one can make it, if those were to have motivational effect, in the sense of maintaining current level and constant improvement of performance. In the light of these facts, it is perhaps necessary to undertake a systematic study of the motivating potentials of various financial and non-financial incentives. The employee benefits offered by the IT companies now could be those not preferred by them. They may be dissatisfied with some or other aspects of their implementation. So for proper selection of appropriate financial and non-financial incentives and the proper implementation, it is necessary to undertake a systematic study using Survey Research Methodology. I used this Methodology in 1970 in one of the studies, I undertook in Perth, Western Australia. The Typology Of Organisations entitled “Organisational Climate and Motivation and Organizational Effectiveness” authored by me and published in a book edited jointly by me can also be used as framework for the study and for bringing about the needed changes in the internal systems and processes of the organizations under study. Prof. Howard Baumgartel of Kanas University had also recommended its use for organizational study and interventions.

    9. Case studies of High Performing IT Companies in Bangalore.

    It involves the study of Organizational Design, Management and Supervisory Styles, compensation plans, Welfare and employee Benefit Schemes, Personal Policies and Practices, Project planning, Implementation and Monitoring and Review Practices, Career planning, Training and Development, Development of Customer –orientation and Result-orientation, Development of partnership skills among Employees for coordinated work accomplishment, Programs for Developing Creative and innovative spirit, Training for adapting to alien cultures and Overcoming Cultural Barriers. Training given to the Employees for working as Members of a well knight Team, Training imparted to the Employees in Professional Ethics Integrity, openness and for contagious desire for continued improvements in what ever one undertakes and the mechanisms of Family and community support extended by the IT companies to facilitate the employee adjustments to the changed rhythms of IT work schedules and the work environment. A representative sample of High Performing IT companies can be compared with those of low performing companies on the above parameters as a controlled experimental study for more reliable findings.

    10. An In-depth Study of Effectiveness of Communication Skills in IT Staff working in Bangalore IT Firms.

    Communication skills, written and Oral, Personal, Interpersonal; and Institutional Mode of Communication such as Presentation Skills, Group Discussions and conference Skills are as vital as knowledge and skills in information Technology for achieving personal and organizational productivity, particularly in IT Industry which employs knowledge workers, to use the term coined by Peter Ducker. Effective communication promotes job clarity, Interdependencies and coordinated work, Team work and creativity, all of which ultimately leads to personal and Organizational Productivity and ability of the Firm to face global completion. Though employees with top IT skills are available in the Indian Labor Market, this by itself is not sufficient for achieving high performance for which above skills are in demand. The IT Workforce consists of relatively young people who are almost fresh from the campus, where there is no training imparted for the development of above skills. Again as IT Industry is in its infancy, it is doubtful whether sufficient training and development opportunities are made available with in the organization for developing and nurturing such skills. In any case, a study this kind is worth undertaking. The study of selected Firms may bring to light certain findings which can be applied to other similar organizations for improving the communication capabilities. Certain the so called best practices in communication already known can also be introduced in the Firms selected for study, if those are found to be lacking. The findings could also be contributions to International literature on the subject.

    11. Study of Customer Preferences for Services offered by Foreign subsidiaries of Financial Services / Firms in Indian – A study in Bangalore.

    There is unforeseen and unprecedented growth of Foreign Subsidiaries of Financial Firms like Commercial Banks and Insurance Companies in India in recent years due to deregulation. There is also increasing Private participation allowed by the Govt. in Banking Sector recently. Banking Industry now offers several new products and new service delivery channels much beyond their conventional ones. Govt. of India has recognized the vital role played by F.D.I for Socio-economic development in all Industrial Sectors including Banking Sector, which was most recently opened for F.D.I. Several Foreign owned Banks such as Citi Bank, American Express, and National Grind lays and so on have started their branch offices in India. Customer financial needs, and financial products offered to meet those needs have multiplied and is ever increasing day by day. So also the channels of delivery have been revolutionalised. With the advent of Information technology, new methods of delivery of services such as Automated Telephone Call Centers, and Computerized Trading Service via Internet have come to be introduced. As a result of proliferation of Banks including private sector Banks, Private Domestic Banks has increased beyond description, with the result we find each Bank vying with other to adopt most attractive products and methods of delivery of Services to retain their existing customers and woe the potential customers. Personalized Banking, luxurious furnishing of Branch offices for customer comfort, Quick transactions such as Issue of Drafts within ten minutes, friendly Counter staff. Offering unconventional services such as Payment of taxes, Electricity and Telephone bills, Assets Insurance etc are being offered to promote business.

    As the above developments are of very recent origin, they are not conceived based on the knowledge of customer needs and preferences obtained by Systematic Customer Surveys. On the contrary, the Bank Managements have developed those practices and the modes of Delivery of Services based on their intuitive knowledge and gut feelings. Thus it is in the fitness of things to plan and undertake a Customer Survey to understand how the Customers perceive the kind and quality of the services offered, how satisfied they are with those practices, what aspects of Services they are dissatisfied with?, how they do they want the services to be improved? And are there new services, they want to be extended? And if so what are they?

    Research Design

    Broadly two types of Methodologies are to be employed: Consumer survey and Case Study.

    Consumer survey

    It is to be conducted in two levels. At the first level, an explorative study will be done to identify the essential attributes of quality of services by interviewing a small sample of Respondents drawn from the customer’s list prepared by the banks. Both Clients who are satisfied and hence continuing patronage and those who have discontinued their transactions for reasons of deficient service are to be included from the intensive interview materials, an inventory of positive and negative factors (Positive factors are those reasons for continuing patronage and Negative Factors are the reasons for closing the accounts) can be drawn.

    At the second level, a survey of a fairly large stratified random sample of Respondents / clients are drawn from the Customer list available in as many number of Foreign Banks, as decided to be considered for study. Domestic Banks can also be included to do a comparative study of the Products and Quality of delivery services. A questionnaire with 7 points scale may be developed to elicit the responses to the factors identified from the unstructured interviews. A number of questions / items on each factor to be included, so that a numerical score can be worked out for each factor and an Interval type of Distribution of Data can be obtained. The statistical Techniques which can be applied for analysis of Survey Data are Means, Medians, S.D., Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, Partial Correlation, Multiple Correlation, Multiple Regression, Multivariate Analysis of Co-Variance, and Factor Analysis.

    The data analysis should answer the questions:

    1. What are the Product and Service features which the Customers are satisfied with and what are their contributions to satisfaction or what are their relative importances as perceived by the Customers?
    2. What are the reasons for the Consumers to be dissatisfied with the Bank Transactions? And how important each one is compared to other?
    3. Are there differences in satisfaction and dissatisfaction which can be attributed to different segments of the Customers based on their socio-economic back ground (to differentiate the population based on Socio-economic background, Standardized Scale such as Kuppuswamy’s Socio-economic Scale available can be used)
    4. What are the improvements, which the customers look forward to for their hassle free Banking experience?
    5. Are Customer responses regarding the range of Products and their delivery or Total Quality of Services unidimensional or multidimensional? In other words How many Reasons are there and whether they form meaningful clusters which are independent of each other? This can be found out by the application of the Statistical Technique of Factor Analysis (Principle Component Method with Varimax Rotation) of Thurston.


    The results of the study should be helpful to the Managements to make their services most effective for promoting productivity vis-à-vis Customer Satisfaction.

    One of the studies which I did in association in two Public Sector Plants in India, titled “Communication and Industrial Relations as a part of Consultancy sponsored by Bureau of Public Sector, Govt. of India can be used as a part of the Model for this proposed Research Study.


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